Mental Health Disorders & Illness
People pursue counseling and therapy for a variety of reasons at Morgan Health Centers, our services cover a wide spectrum of issues and conditions, from minor to complex, both recently developed and long-standing.
Neurodevelopmental Disorders are those that are typically diagnosed during infancy, childhood, or adolescence, often before the child begins grade school. These psychological disorders include:
- Intellectual Disability
- Global Developmental Delay
- Communication Disorders
- Autism Spectrum Disorder
- Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Bipolar & Related Disorders represent a major category of psychological disorders. Bipolar disorder is characterized by shifts in mood as well as changes in activity and energy levels. The disorder often involves experiencing shifts between elevated moods and periods of depression. Such elevated moods can be pronounced and are referred to either as mania or hypomania.
A disorder associated with episodes of mood swings ranging from depressive lows to manic highs. Along with the mood swings, bipolar disorder causes changes in behavior, energy levels, and activity levels. Bipolar disorder used to be called other names, including manic depression and manic-depressive disorder.
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Anxiety Disorders are a type of psychological disorder characterized by excessive and persistent fear, worry, anxiety and related behavioral disturbances. Fear involves an emotional response to a threat, whether that threat is real or perceived. Anxiety involves the anticipation that a future threat may arise.
Types of anxiety disorders include:
- Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
- Social Anxiety Disorder
- Specific Phobias
- Panic Disorder
- Separation Anxiety Disorder
Anxiety is a feeling of fear, dread, and uneasiness. It might cause you to sweat, feel restless and tense, and have a rapid heartbeat. It can be a normal reaction to stress. This mental health disorder is characterized by feelings of worry, anxiety, or fear that are strong enough to interfere with one’s daily activities.
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Trauma and Stress Related Disorders involve exposure to a stressful or traumatic life event, these adjustment disorders in which a person has trouble coping during or after the stressful or traumatic life event.
Disorders included in this category include:
- Acute Stress Disorder
- Adjustment Disorders
- Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
- Reactive Attachment Disorder
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health disorder that some people develop after they experience or see a traumatic event. The traumatic event may be life-threatening, such as combat, a natural disaster, a car accident, or sexual assault. But sometimes the event is not necessarily a dangerous one. For example, the sudden, unexpected death of a loved one can also cause PTSD.
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Dissociative Disorders are psychological disorders that involve a dissociation or interruption in aspects of consciousness, including identity and memory.
Dissociative disorders include:
- Dissociative Amnesia
- Dissociative Identity Disorder
- Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder
Dissociative disorders involve problems with memory, identity, emotion, perception, behavior and sense of self. Dissociative symptoms can potentially disrupt every area of mental functioning.
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Somatic Symptom Disorders are a class of psychological disorders that involve prominent physical symptoms that may not have a diagnosable physical cause.
Disorders included in this category:
- Somatic Symptom Disorder
- Illness Anxiety Disorder
- Conversion Disorder
- Factitious Disorder
Somatic symptom disorder involves a person having a significant focus on physical symptoms, such as pain, weakness or shortness of breath, that results in major distress and/or problems functioning.
The individual has excessive thoughts, feelings and behaviors relating to the physical symptoms. The physical symptoms may or may not be associated with a diagnosed medical condition, but the person is experiencing symptoms and believes they are sick (that is, not faking the illness).
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Psychological Eating Disorders
are disorders related to eating and feeding. Eating disorders are characterized by obsessive concerns with weight and disruptive eating patterns that negatively impact physical and mental health.
Types of eating disorders include:
- Anorexia Nervosa
- Bulimia Nervosa
- Rumination Disorder
- Binge-Eating Disorder
- Avoidant / Restrictive Food Intake Disorder
Eating disorders are a range of psychological conditions that cause unhealthy eating habits to develop. They might start with an obsession with food, body weight, or body shape. In severe cases, eating disorders can cause serious health consequences and may even result in death if left untreated.
Those with eating disorders can have a variety of symptoms. However, most include the severe restriction of food, food binges, or purging behaviors like vomiting or over-exercising.
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Psychological Sleep Disorders
are disorders that are related to sleep. Sleep disorders involve an interruption in sleep patterns that lead to distress and affects daytime functioning.
Examples of sleep disorders include:
- Insomnia Disorder
- Breathing-Related Sleep Disorders
- Restless Legs Syndrome
Sleep disorders (or sleep-wake disorders) involve problems with the quality, timing, and amount of sleep, which result in daytime distress and impairment in functioning. Sleep-wake disorders often occur along with medical conditions or other mental health conditions, such as depression, anxiety, or cognitive disorders.
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Disruptive / Impulse Control Disorders are those that involve an inability to control emotions and behaviors, resulting in harm to oneself or others. These problems with emotional and behavioral regulation are characterized by actions that violate the rights of others such as destroying property or physical aggression and/or those that conflict with societal norms, authority figures, and laws.
Types of impulse-control disorders include:
- Intermittent Explosive Disorder
- Conduct Disorder
- Oppositional Defiant Disorder
These disorders can cause people to behave angrily or aggressively toward people or property. They may have difficulty controlling their emotions and behavior and may break rules or laws.
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Depressive Disorders are a type of mood disorder that include a number of conditions. They are all characterized by the presence of sad, empty, or irritable moods accompanied by physical and cognitive symptoms. They differ in terms of duration, timing, or presumed etiology.
Types of depressive disorders include:
- Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder
- Major Depressive Disorder
- Persistent Depressive Disorder
- Other or Unspecified Depressive Disorder
- Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
- Substance/Medication-Induced Depressive Disorder
- Depressive disorder due to another medical condition
Depression is a serious medical illness. It’s more than just a feeling of being sad or “blue” for a few days. This disorder characterized by persistently depressed mood or loss of interest in activities, causing significant impairment in daily life.
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are those that involve the use and abuse of different substances such as cocaine, methamphetamine, opiates, and alcohol. These disorders may include substance-induced conditions that can result in many associated diagnoses including intoxication, withdrawal, the emergence of psychosis, anxiety, and delirium.
Examples of substance-related disorders:
- Gambling Disorder
Substance-related disorders are a class of psychiatric disorders characterized by a craving for, the development of a tolerance to, and difficulties in controlling the use of a particular substance or a set of substances, as well as withdrawal symptoms upon abrupt cessation of substance use. While these substances may have different mechanisms of action, their addictive potential typically lies in the way they act on the brain’s reward system and affect emotion, mood, and perception – producing what is colloquially referred to as a “high.”
Individuals with a substance use disorder will frequently harm themselves and/or others as a result of substance use. Patients with substance use disorders often present with other psychiatric conditions that also require treatment, such as bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, or anxiety disorder. In gambling disorder, individuals feel a compulsion to gamble despite negative consequences and/or multiple attempts to stop. Gambling disorder is thought to involve many of the same neurobiological mechanisms as substance-related addictions and shares some of the same psychosocial risk factors.
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Neurocognitive Disorders are characterized by acquired deficits in cognitive function. These disorders do not include those in which impaired cognition was present at birth or early in life.
Reduced mental function may include:
- Problems with memory
- Changes in behavior
- Difficulty understanding language
- Trouble performing daily activities
These symptoms may be caused by a neurodegenerative condition, such as Alzheimer’s disease or dementia. Neurodegenerative diseases cause the brain and nerves to deteriorate over time, resulting in a gradual loss of neurological function. Neurocognitive disorders can also develop as a result of brain trauma or substance abuse. The cause and severity of neurocognitive disorders can help healthcare providers determine the best course of treatment.
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Schizophrenia Spectrum & Other Psychotic Disorders are chronic psychiatric conditions that affect a person’s thinking, feeling, and behavior. The disorders cause a detachment from reality at times.
One symptom must be one of the following:
- Disorganized Speech
The second symptom may be one of the following:
- Grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior, confused thinking, bizarre behavior or movements
- Negative symptoms: the inability to initiate plans, speak, express emotions, or feel pleasure.
A disorder that affects a person’s ability to think, feel, and behave clearly. Schizophrenia is a serious brain illness. People who have it may hear voices that aren’t there. They may think other people are trying to hurt them. Sometimes they don’t make sense when they talk. The disorder makes it hard for them to keep a job or take care of themselves.
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Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders (OCD), people with Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have excessive thoughts (obsessions) that lead to repetitive behaviors (compulsions). OCD is a mental disorder in which these thoughts (obsessions) and rituals (compulsions) happen over and over. They interfere with life, and sufferers find it difficult to control or stop them.
This category of psychiatric conditions include:
- Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
- Body-dysmorphic disorder
- Hoarding disorder
- Trichotillomania (hair-pulling disorder)
- Excoriation disorder (skin picking)
- Substance/medication-induced obsessive-compulsive and related disorder
- Obsessive-compulsive and related disorder due to another medical condition
Personality Disorders are characterized by an enduring pattern of maladaptive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that can cause serious detriments to relationships and other life areas.
Types of personality disorders include:
- Antisocial Personality Disorder
- Avoidant Personality Disorder
- Borderline Personality Disorder
- Dependent Personality Disorder
- Histrionic Personality Disorder
- Narcissistic Personality Disorder
- Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder
- Paranoid Personality Disorder
- Schizoid Personality Disorder
- Schizotypal Personality Disorder
A person with a personality disorder has a rigid and unhealthy pattern of thinking, functioning and behaving they have trouble perceiving and relating to situations and people. This causes significant problems and limitations in relationships, social activities, work and school.
The person, may not realize that they have a personality disorder because their way of thinking and behaving seems natural to them. They may blame others for the challenges they face. Personality disorders usually begin in the teenage years or early adulthood. There are many types of personality disorders. Some types may become less obvious throughout middle age.
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